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青州's Question
Chemistry
Posted 3 months ago

Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point.
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Answer from Sia
Posted 3 months ago
Solution
1
Identify molecular structures: The boiling points of organic compounds are influenced by molecular weight, branching, and the types of intermolecular forces present. Alcohols generally have higher boiling points than ketones and alkanes due to hydrogen bonding. Ketones have dipole-dipole interactions and alkanes have only London dispersion forces
2
Analyze intermolecular forces: The primary alcohol (CH3CH2CH2CH2OH) can form hydrogen bonds, which are the strongest intermolecular forces among the given compounds. The ketone (CH3CH2CH2C=OCH3) has a polar carbonyl group that allows for dipole-dipole interactions, which are weaker than hydrogen bonds but stronger than London dispersion forces. The alkane (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3) has the weakest intermolecular forces, which are London dispersion forces
3
Consider molecular weight and branching: All three compounds have similar molecular weights, but the alkane has the longest carbon chain without any branching, which typically leads to stronger London dispersion forces compared to branched isomers. However, this effect is not strong enough to overcome the difference in intermolecular forces between the alkane and the other two compounds
4
Arrange by boiling point: Based on the types of intermolecular forces, the order of increasing boiling point is alkane < ketone < alcohol
Answer
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 < CH3CH2CH2C=OCH3 < CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
Key Concept
Intermolecular forces and boiling points
Explanation
The boiling point of organic compounds increases with stronger intermolecular forces: London dispersion < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding.

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